The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
The human rights situation in Ethiopian has changed in recent decades, having adopted new constitutional and statutory protections for persons arrested and detained awaiting trial. Despite these changes, arbitrary and/or lengthy pretrial detention is still reported to be a problem throughout the country. Thankfully for those who may be detained awaiting trial, the legal framework and the federal government’s declarations strongly support the rights of such persons to be brought before a judge within a reasonable time and to have a fair and public trial. In practice, however, significant effort may be needed in order to ensure these rights are respected. In general, Article 19 of the Ethiopian constitution provides that a person arrested or detained has the right to be brought to trial and informed of the charges against him within 48 hours of arrest, though extra time is allowed as required for travel to the court. In addition, many rights are legally afforded to pre-trial detainees that will be familiar to most Americans, including the right to remain silent, to avoid self-incrimination, to be informed (in a language the detainee understands) of the charges against him or her and access to legal counsel. The Federal Penal Code, as well as various state constitutions, penal codes and administrative regulations adhere to the 48-hour rule and other protections. Despite this trend and the consistency of legislation in the country, however, international observers note reports of lengthy pre-trial detention including reported instances of torture and denial of access to legal counsel and family members, as well as the existence of unofficial places of detention. The U.S. State Department notes these shortcomings and the fact that, “[i]f you are arrested in Ethiopia, you have the right to request that authorities alert the U.S. Embassy of your detention or arrest in accordance with the 1951 Treaty of Amity and Economic Relations between the United States and Ethiopia.” However it also recommends that, “[i]f you are detained or arrested in Ethiopia you should use whatever means of communication available to alert the U.S. Embassy of your situation,” as the Ethiopian government is not likely to take such action on a detained person’s behalf. As laid out more fully below, there are numerous challenges a pre-trial detainee in Ethiopia may encounter, however we hope to provide resources to help ensure the constitutionally enshrined human rights of any such detainee are respected.
General Status of Pretrial Detention Rights in Ethiopia
Ethiopia is Africa’s oldest independent country and its second largest in terms of population. Ethiopia has gone through a long period of significant transition over the past several decades, resulting in the adoption of the Ethiopian Constitution in December 1994, which entered into force in August 1995, and a revised penal code in 2004. The newly elected legislature, the Federal Parliamentary Assembly, also assumed power in 1995. The constitution ensures a parliamentary form of government and an administration of nine ethnically based states and two self-governing administrations. The constitution also enshrines basic human rights and freedoms as an inviolable part of the national legal structure. According to the Library of Congress, “Ethiopia has a tradition of highly personal and strongly centralized government, a pattern the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (the present government) has followed despite constitutional limits on federal power.” Each state has its own constitution; however the federal constitution, in Article 9, clearly states that it is the supreme law of the land. Thus, for example, as the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples state constitution acknowledges any state laws that would contravene the federal constitution are invalid. While individual state and local laws are difficult to obtain, the federal penal Code Ethiopia also has a multi-tiered court system. The Federal Supreme Court, consisting of 11 judges, has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues, while the federal high courts and federal courts of first instance, as well as state court systems mirroring the structure of the federal system, sharia courts and customary and traditional courts each have jurisdiction over certain aspects of Ethiopian law. The Ethiopian Ministry of Justice notes that “[a]fter the downfall of Military rule, the [transitional] government took supportive measures in regards to the independence of judiciary system.” Despite these reassurances, the U.S. State Department has found that, “[a]lthough the civil courts operated with a large degree of independence, the criminal courts remained weak, overburdened, and subject to political influence.” According to the International Center for Prison Studies, the percentage of the total prison population represented by pre-trial/remand prisoners has fallen significantly, from 56.6% in 1999/2000 to approximately 14% in 2009/2010. Despite this significant change, lengthy pretrial detention remains a significant problem. In addition, NGOs have limited authority to operate in Ethiopia due to significant legal restrictions on funding and operations found in the 2009 Charities and Societies Proclamation, which has been decried by many international organizations including the Human Rights Watch and the African Commission on Human & Peoples’ Rights. Moreover, “[t]he government denied most NGOs access to federal prisons, police stations, and political prisoners.” Ethiopia’s Antiterrorism Proclamation has been used with some frequency to detain and convict journalists and others of crimes under this proclamation, and allows for greater flexibility in detaining individuals for longer periods prior to trial or any appearance before a judge.
Domestic Laws Governing Pretrial Detention
Constitution: Ethiopia is a federal republic under which “[t]he federal state is headed by a constitution president and the federal government by an executive prime minister who is accountable to the council of [P]eoples’ Representative[s]. Each autonomous state is headed by a state president elected by the state council. The judiciary is constitutionally independent.” The federal constitution, which entered into force in 1995, provides significant protections for the human rights of those accused of crimes. Article 9 of the constitution provides that it is the supreme law of the land and no law in contravention of the federal constitution is of any force or effect. Article 9 also notes international agreements ratified by Ethiopia are “an integral part of the law of the land” and the fundamental rights and freedoms specified in the constitution are to be interpreted in a manner conforming to the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenants on Human Rights and international instruments adopted by Ethiopia. The Ethiopian National Human Rights Plan 2013-2015, though an aspirational rather than a legal document, clearly expresses the Ethiopian government’s commitment to uphold the human rights of all individuals and abide by international norms. The plan affirms the following with respect to the Rights of Persons Arrested, Persons Held in Custody and Convicted Prisoners: “The FDRE Constitution provides the following rights for arrested persons; persons held in custody and convicted persons. Persons arrested have the right to be informed promptly, in a language they understand, of the reasons of their arrest and of any charge against them /Article 19/1/ Have the right to remain silent and the right to be informed properly in a language they understand, that any statement they make may be used as evidence against them in court Article /19/2/ Have the right to be brought before a court within 48 hours of their arrest and the right to petition the court to order their physical release when they fail to appear before the court within the prescribed time. Article 19/3 and 9. The right not to be compelled to make confession or admissions which could be used against them /Art. 19/5/ The right to be released on bail /Art 19/6/. It is added that in exceptional circumstances prescribed by law, the court may deny bail or demand adequate guarantee for the conditional release of the arrested person. All persons held in custody and persons imprisoned upon conviction and sentencing have the right to treatments respecting their human dignity /21/1/ All persons shall have opportunity to communicate with, and be visited by, their spouses and partners, close relatives, friends, religious councilors, medical doctors and their legal counsel. /Art 21/2/.” The Council of Constitutional Inquiry Proclamation addresses how questions arising under the constitution should be handled. It provides that, “[w]here any law or decision given by any government organ or official which is alleged to be contradictory to the constitution is submitted to it, the Council shall investigate the matter and submit its recommendations thereon to the House of the Federation for a final decision.” This provides a potential avenue for vindicating rights of pre-trial detainees that are denied by police and other officials, such as a pre-trial detainee being held without a court appearance beyond the constitutionally prescribed 48-hour period. “Any party who is dissatisfied with the decision of the Council…may Appeal to the House of the Federation.” The House of Federation is granted the power to interpret the constitution and is specifically tasked as follows: “Where the Constitutional case submitted to the House pertains to the fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in the Constitution, the interpretation shall be made in a manner conforming to the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. International Covenants on Human rights. and International instruments adopted by Ethiopia.” The charter for the House of Federation also grants it the power and responsibility to “order the Federal Government to intervene in any State in which it believes the constitutional order is endangered.” Federal Law: In addition to the constitutional protections, “[t]here are provisions in the Criminal Procedure Code that are meant to further the values enshrined in the Constitution. … [T]here are provisions relating to the right of the suspect or defendant to remain silent, to be released on bail, protecting the suspect against unreasonable search and seizure, to be treated with dignity, to be visited by relatives and religious fathers, to be represented by an attorney, to have access to and examine prosecution witnesses, to present his defence, and to be presumed innocent until proved guilty by the prosecution.” “Unlawful detention or arrest is also a crime under Article 423 the criminal code. Hence any public servant, who, contrary to law or in disregard of the forms and safeguards prescribed by law, arrests, detains or otherwise deprives another of his freedom, is subject to punishment.” The Federal Police Commission Establishment Proclamation of 2011 also prohibits the use of “inhumane or degrading treatment or act” by federal police officials. The Supreme Court has also held that denial of bail is an exception to the rule, and the legal allowance for denial of bail must be narrowly interpreted. Thus bail should be an option for a pre-trial detainee in all but the most exceptional of circumstances, however, as discussed below, application of the antiterrorism proclamation means bail may be denied more readily for those accused under this law. Though many aspects of the Ethiopian federal Criminal Code may be familiar, as is the case in many foreign countries, some differences may impact those detained in Ethiopia. Article 4 of the criminal code provides for equality before the law, prohibiting “discrimination as regards persons, social conditions, race, nation, nationality, social origin, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, property, birth or other status.” While the principles behind the code are familiar, there are a variety of behaviors that are criminalized which may be common and legal elsewhere. For example, under the category of “Crimes Against Honor,” Article 615 covers “Insulting Behaviour and Outrage,” Article 629 addresses “Homosexual and other Indecent Acts” and Article 652 addresses “Adultery.” These provisions may result in an unanticipated arrest and pre-trial confinement, though as noted above, unlawful detention or arrest is also a crime under Article 423 the criminal code. The criminal code provides for two levels
of imprisonment: simple imprisonment (Article 106) extending from ten days to three years imposed to “crimes of not very serious nature and committed by persons who are not a serious danger to society” and rigorous imprisonment (Article 108) extending from one year to twenty five years or for life and imposed to “crimes of a very grave nature committed by criminals who are particularly dangerous to society.” Standing seemingly in contravention of the strong constitutional, international and criminal code protections for those accused of crime stands Ethiopia’s 2009 antiterrorism law, which is perhaps the legal mechanism of greatest concern for arbitrary and extended pretrial detention. This law provides a broad definition of terrorism and grants the government seemingly unrestricted power to declare opposition political and other groups to be terrorist organizations, thereby subjecting advocates for these organizations, including journalists, to arrest and detention. Human Rights Watch observes that “[t]he law permits individuals to be held up to four months in pre-charge detention, one of the longest pre-charge detention periods in the world. The law also permits the use of hearsay or “indirect evidences” in court without any limitation. It allows the admission of official intelligence reports without disclosing the source of the information or how it was gathered which effectively allows evidence obtained under torture to be used. Similarly it allows for the admissibility of confessions without prohibiting the use of confessions made under torture.” Article 20/5 of the antiterrorism proclamation also allows that “[i]f a terrorism charge is filed in accordance with this Proclamation, the court shall order the suspect to be remanded for trial until the court hears and gives decision on the case.” While the proclamation relates to terrorism, the law has been applied in a significantly broader manner than might be expected from its title. Human Rights Watch notes that the effects of the antiterrorism law and the charities and societies law (see below), “coupled with the government’s widespread and persistent harassment, threats, and intimidation of civil society activists, journalists, and others who comment on sensitive issues or express views critical of government policy, has been severe.” The antiterrorism law is broadly written and has been applied against “journalists, opposition political figures, and activists based in the country, as well as an Ethiopian employee of the UN.” Its proscriptions on conduct and association that may result in arrest for associating with those who accused of terrorist acts, which have included those whose conduct is “indicative of acts of a political nature rather than linked to terrorism.” The State Department notes that “[t]he law prohibits detention in any facility other than an official detention center; however, local militias and other formal and informal law enforcement entities used dozens of unofficial local detention centers. At the same time, Human Rights Watch notes that “[t]here is erratic access to legal counsel and insufficient respect for other due process guarantees during detention, pre-trial detention, and trial phases of politically sensitive cases, placing detainees at risk of abuse.” The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights expressed its grave alarm “‘at the arrest and prosecutions of journalists and political opposition members, charged with terrorism and other offences, including treason, for exercising their peaceful and legitimate rights to freedom of expression and freedom of association.’ Ethiopia has yet to address these concerns.” Potentially further contributing to the infringement of rights of pre-trial detainees, the presence of NGO’s in Ethiopia has been greatly reduced due to the Charities and Societies Proclamation which, in practice, limits the functioning of NGOs in Ethiopia by prohibiting any NGO from receiving more than 10% of its funding from sources outside Ethiopia. This has resulted in a very small number of NGO’s actually operating in Ethiopia and therefore less potential assistance to Americans detained in the country awaiting trial. One NGO of note, Justice For All – Prison Fellowship Ethiopia (“JFA-PFE”), has been allowed to operate on a more significant scale than most other NGOs in Ethiopia. According to the State Department, “[t]he government denied most NGOs access to federal prisons, police stations, and political prisoners. The government permitted the JFA-PFE, one of four organizations granted an exemption enabling them to raise unlimited funds from foreign sources and to engage in human rights advocacy, to visit prisoners. The JFA-PFE played a positive role in improving prisoners’ chances for clemency.” JFA-PFE also “ran model prisons in Adama and Mekele, with significantly better conditions than those found in other prisons.” Such past effectiveness may make JFA-PFE a useful organization in challenging pre-trial detention. State Law: Sovereign power, subject to the federal constitution, is vested in the regional states. The various states, while subject to the federal constitution, also have their own constitutions and laws regarding issues within their sphere of responsibility. The Ethiopian National Human Rights Plan 2013-2015 also states that: “All States have their own Constitution and can enact laws on issues falling within state jurisdiction. On the other hand the States executive authorities are responsible to implement the laws and policies of the State Councils as well as Federal laws. Similarly an independent judiciary is established in each State with the mandate to interpret laws. Further … international agreements ratified by Ethiopia are an integral part of the law of the land and the fundamental rights and freedoms specified in the Constitution are to be interpreted in a manner conforming to the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenants on Human Rights and international instruments adopted by Ethiopia.” One commentator has noted that “[t]he most important justification by far for subnational constitutionalism is the benefit it confers in the protection of human rights. Instead of a single regime of rights protection implemented at the national level, subnational constitutionalism allows for the creation of a second, and to some degree competing, regime of rights protection at the subnational level.” At the same time, however, there is “ambiguity with regard to the role of courts to enforce constitutional human rights” because interpretive power is divided between courts and the House of the Federation, which has “played a role in the diminished implementation of human rights in Ethiopia.” “Human rights are gr
atuitously granted a constitutional guarantee in the state constitutions. In almost all of the constitutional texts, the [human rights] provisions of chapter three of the federal constitution are “restated” at times even ad verbatim. Thus all rights-individual as well as of groups-are recognized.” Aligned with the federal constitution, for example, the State of Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (“SSNNP”) Constitution states that, “[w]ithout prejudice to the supremacy of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia” it shall be the supreme law of the state. The SSNNP constitution then parrots the federal constitution stating in Article 10 that “Human rights and freedoms are inviolable and inalienable. They are inherent in the dignity of human beings. Human and democratic rights of peoples and citizens shall be respected.” The Amhara State Constitution likewise declares that human rights and freedoms, emanating from the nature of mankind, are inviolable and inalienable. It also provides that no one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedures as are established by law, and no person may be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detained, or imprisoned without charge or conviction thereof. Article 19 enshrines the following provisions regarding arrest and detention:
- The right to be informed promptly and specifically in a language he understands, of the reasons for his arrest and of any charges against him
- The right to remain silent and to immediately be informed of this right
- The right to be brought before a court within 48 hours of arrest (plus time for the journey to court) and the right to a prompt and specific explanation of reasons for arrest due to alleged crime committed immediately upon appearance before a court
- The inalienable right to petition the court for release. The Court may order him to remain in custody in the interest of Justice or when additional time needed for investigation. The Court determines the time the detainee is held, while ensuring a speedy trial.
International or Multilateral Treaties Concerning Arbitrary Detention
Article 9 of the Ethiopian constitution incorporates “[a]ll international agreements ratified by Ethiopia [as] an integral part of the laws of the country.” Ethiopia is a party (either ratification or accession) to numerous international agreements regarding human rights and pretrial detention including:
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
- Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- African Charter on Human and People’s Rights
According to Human Rights Watch, “[a]lthough international law does not impose specific limits on the length of time a person may be held before being charged, requiring that it be done “promptly,” any prolonged period would be contrary to human rights standards. The Ethiopian Criminal Procedure Code, in the process of revision according to the draft National Human Rights Action plan seen by Human Rights Watch, currently allows for the police conducting an investigation to seek repeated remand detentions of up to 14 days.” Further protection is provided under Article 6 of the African Charter, which states that “[e]very individual shall have the right to liberty and to the security of his person. No one may be deprived of his freedom except for reasons and conditions previously laid down by law. In particular, no one may be arbitrarily arrested or detained.” One African Commission ruling noted that, “a decree that allows the government to arbitrarily hold persons critical to the government for up to three months without bringing them before the court violates the right protected in Article 6.” By this ruling, the African Charter would prevent Ethiopia from imposing lengthy pre-trial detention, particularly if done to the maximum extent allowed under the antiterrorism proclamation discussed below. The UN Standard Minimum Rules for Non-Custodial Measures (the “Tokyo Rules”) also provide that:
- Pre-trial detention shall be used as a means of last resort in criminal proceedings, with due regard for the investigation of the alleged offence and for the protection of society and the victim
- Alternatives to pre-trial detention shall be employed at as early a stage as possible
- Pre-trial detention shall last no longer than necessary and shall be administered humanely and with respect for the inherent dignity of human beings
- The accused shall have the right to appeal to a judicial or other competent independent authority in cases in which pre-trial detention is employed.
As discussed above, Ethiopia is constitutionally committed to upholding the rights provided for in these international instruments further bolstering the broad acknowledgement of human rights including those of pre-trial detainees.
European Convention on Human Rights (“ECHR”)
Click here to see Pretrial Rights International’s summary of pretrial detention rights under the European Convention on Human Rights.
Click here to see Pretrial Rights International’s summary of pretrial detention rights under the ICCPR.
Case Examples / Practical Observations
Despite the numerous legal protections, the National Human Rights Plan acknowledges many shortcomings that are also generally noted by international observers. The U.S. State Department cites the following issues: Although the constitution and law require detainees be brought to court and charged within 48 hours of arrest, sometimes this requirement was not respected in practice. With court approval, persons suspected of serious offenses can be detained for 14 days without being charged and for additional 14-day periods if an investigation continues. Under the antiterrorism proclamation, police may request to hold persons without charge for 28-day periods, up to a maximum of four months, while an investigation is conducted. The law prohibits detention in any facility other than an official detention center; however, local militias and other formal and informal law enforcement entities used dozens of unofficial local detention centers…. While detainees were in pretrial detention, authorities sometimes allowed them little or no contact with legal counsel, did not provide full information on their health status, and did not provide for family visits. In addition, the State Department notes that “[s]ome detainees reported being held for several years without being charged and without trial. Information on the percentage of detainee population in pretrial detention and the average length of time held was not available. Trial delays were most often caused by lengthy legal procedures, the large numbers of detainees, judicial inefficiency, and staffing shortages.” There are no reports of any U.S. citizen currently or recently being held in pretrial detention in Ethiopia. However, there are reports that Americans have been held at various times, including students, journalists, and reportedly even soldiers. Because the antiterrorism proclamation discussed above can be applied so broadly, foreigners may be subject to arrest for a variety of actions including speech and association activities that may be perfectly innocent, such as engaging with journalists or political figures. Evidence of such detention is readily available and demonstrates the practical risks arising from the law. The U.S. State Department notes that during 2012, “the government concluded trials against 31 persons … charged with terrorist activities under the antiterrorism proclamation. These trials included cases against 12 journalists, opposition political figures, and activists based in the country, as well as an Ethiopian employee of the UN. All were found guilty. . . . The government also invoked the antiterrorism proclamation in charging 28 Muslims identified with protests and one Muslim accused of accepting funds illegally from a foreign embassy.” Human Rights Watch interviews revealed that some of these detainees were denied access to their families and lawyers, sometimes for weeks, and in certain cases family members did not even know the location where the detainees were being held. Many also did not know the charges on which they were being held and some were never brought before a court.
The US Embassy in Addis Ababa provides a useful list of attorneys in Ethiopia willing to provide legal assistance to private American citizens, and the UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office also has a list of English speaking lawyers and translators. The Embassy also provides a page of useful information for Americans who may be victims of crime in Ethiopia – this information briefly describes the arrest, pretrial, and trial procedures in Ethiopia and provides contact information for the U.S. Embassy. American citizens requiring urgent or emergency services during business hours should call the Consular Section at 011-130-6000. For urgent or emergency concerns after hours or on weekends and holidays, call the above number and ask the operator to connect you with the Duty Officer. An American arrested in Ethiopia, has the right to request authorities alert the U.S. Embassy of his or her detention or arrest under the 1951 Treaty of Amity and Economic Relations between the United States and Ethiopia. However, the U.S. State Department notes that “[t]he Government of Ethiopia rarely informs the Embassy of arrested or detained U.S. citizens, even those detained at the airport by immigration or customs authorities. In some instances, U.S. citizens have been detained for weeks or even months without Embassy notification…. Therefore, you should use whatever means of communication available to alert the U.S. Embassy of your situation.” The U.S. Ambassador-designate to Ethiopia is Patricia Haslach. Other principal embassy officials are listed in the Department’s Key Officers List. Ethiopia also maintains an embassy in the United States at 3506 International Drive, NW, Washington, DC 20008. The embassy phone number is (202) 364-1200. The Ethiopian government does provide mechanisms to challenge pre-trial detention, though the effectiveness of these official avenues is unclear.
- Ombudsman: According to the Ethiopian National Human Rights Action Plan, “[t]he Institution of Ombudsman was established in accordance with Article 55/15/ of the FDRE Constitution and Proclamation No. 211/2000 and is accountable to the House of Peoples’ Representatives. The Institution is an autonomous organ of the Federal government with the main objective to bring about good governance that is of high quality, efficient and transparent, and is based on the rule of law, by way of ensuring that citizens’ rights and benefits provided by law are respected by the executive organs of Government.”
- Habeas corpus: A person who is arrested has a constitutional right to file a petition to a court for his physical release. Under Article 19/4 of the constitution, “All persons have the right to petition the court for a writ of habeas corpus, a right no court can deny, where the arresting officer or agency fails to bring them before a court of law and provide the reasons for their arrest; the court may, where the interest of justice requires, order the arrested person to remain in custody no longer than the time strictly required in order to carry out the necessary investigation aimed at establishing the facts. In determining the time necessary for investigation, the court shall take into account whether the responsible authorities are carrying out the investigation with deliberate speed in order to guarantee the arrested person’s right to a speedy trial.
- Bail: The constitution also guarantees that “[a]ll persons arrested have the right to be released on bail. The Court may, in exceptional cases as prescribed by law, deny bail or demand adequate guarantee for the conditional release of the arrested person.”
- Council of Constitutional Inquiry and House of Federation: The Council of Constitutional Inquiry Proclamation provides that, “[w]here any law or decision given by any government organ or official which is alleged to be contradictory to the constitution is submitted to it, the Council shall investigate the matter and submit its recommendations thereon to the House of the Federation for a final decision.” “Any party who is dissatisfied with the decision of the Council…may Appeal to the House of the Federation.” The House of Federation is granted the power to interpret the constitution and is specifically tasked as follows: “Where the Constitutional case submitted to the House pertains to the fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in the Constitution, the interpretation shall be made in a manner conforming to the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. International Covenants on Human and International instruments adopted by Ethiopia.” The charter for the House of Federation also grants it the power and responsibility to “order the Federal Government to intervene in any State in which it believes the constitutional order is endangered.”
In addition to various governmental and embassy resources, one NGO, Justice For All – Prison Fellowship Ethiopia (“JFA-PFE”), has been allowed to operate on a more significant scale in Ethiopia. According to the State Department, “[t]he government denied most NGOs access to federal prisons, police stations, and political prisoners. The government permitted the JFA-PFE, one of four organizations granted an exemption enabling them to raise unlimited funds from foreign sources and to engage in human rights advocacy, to visit prisoners. The JFA-PFE played a positive role in improving prisoners’ chances for clemency.” JFA-PFE also “ran model prisons in Adama and Mekele, with significantly better conditions than those found in other prisons.” Justice For All – Prison Fellowship Ethiopia P.O. Box 2366 Code 1110 Tel: +251-11-5154622, 515878, 5158783 Fax: +251-11-515-8781 Addis Ababa Ethiopia E-mail: email@example.com Another potential resource is the International Committee of the Red Cross, which has “resumed its regular visits to federal prisons and expanded its activities in regional prisons in Oromia, Amhara, Harari, Tigray and Afar.” ICRC delegation Bole Sub city-, Kebele 12/13, House no. New P. O. Box 5701 ADDIS ABEBA Phone: (++251 11) 647 83 00 Fax: (++251 11) 647 83 01 firstname.lastname@example.org Head of delegation: Ms. TOMBET Ariane Media contact person: Mr. AYALEW Zewdu Mobile: (++251) 116 47 83 20 Languages spoken: English The Ethiopian Human Rights Commission represents another potential resource to advocate for the rights of those in pre-trial detention. Human Rights Watch, however, notes that the group has limited independence and is not compliant with the Paris Principles (which promote the independence of national human rights institutions). Address: In front of Legar Bus Station, Merkeb Building 7th – 11th floors Tel: +251- 11-550-40-31 : +251- 11-550-02-83 (Information and Communication Directorate) : +251- 11-550-40-96 (Human Resource Management Directorate) : +251- 11-550-41-14 (Readdressing of Human Rights Violation Directorate) : +251- 11-550-26-75 (Human Rights Promotion Directorate) : +251- 11-550-26-81 (Human Rights Research, Monitoring and Reporting Directorate) Fax: +251- 11-550-41-25 E-mail: email@example.com P.O. Box 1165 Branch Offices Mekele: Tel. +251-34-840-90-51 : Fax. +251-34-441-82-17 : P.O. Box. 1724 Bahir Dar: Tel. +251-58-226-33-43 : Fax. +251-58-226-47-96 : P.O. Box. 160 Hawassa: Tel. +251-46-220-58-74 : Fax. +251-46-221-43-68 : P.O. Box. 1672 Jimma: Tel. +251-47-111-62-23 : Fax. +251-47-111-69-21 : P.O. Box. 951 Gambella: Tel. +251-47-551-13-76 : Fax. +251-47-551-13-13 : P.O. Box. 107 Jijiga: Tel. +251-25-775-24-69 : Fax. +251-25-775-24-94 : P.O. Box. 1007
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